Bates, T. (in (Foley, 2003) proposed 12 “golden rules” for the effective use of technology in education. These rules offer a suggested approach to designing and implementing digital learning environments:
1. Good teaching matters. Regardless of the delivery methods and mechanisms, design quality of instruction and activities is essential.
2. Each medium has its own aesthetic. Instructors and designers must exploit the strengths and acknowledge the weaknesses of each selected medium.
3. Education technologies are flexible. Each technology has individual characteristics that make it unique but successful instruction is not reliant on technology, nor can technology save poor instruction.
4. There is no “super-technology.” One size and one approach does not fit all and so technologies need to be modified and combined to create the most effective learning environment.
5. Make a variety of media available to teachers and learners. Engage learners using audio, video, online, print and emerging technologies for the greatest impact.
6. Balance variety with economy. Do not feel compelled to incorporate every new and expensive technology. Select tools that enhance and support specific instructional goals.
7. Interaction is essential. Student to student, student to content, student to teacher, teacher to content and teacher to teacher are all necessary to grow and evaluate effective learning environments.
8. Student numbers are critical. Determine the media to support learning based, in part, on the number of students interacting with the media and content.
9. New technologies are not necessarily better than old ones. The goal of the technology is to expand and transform an instructional opportunity, regardless of the age of the technology.
10. Teachers need training to use technology effectively. Adoption and integration of technology cannot happen in a vacuum
11. Teamwork is essential. Creating effective learning environments and interactions relies on a host of contributors including faculty, facilities, instructional designers and technologists.
12. Technology is not the issue. The instructional goals and learning outcomes must be the central focus of any use of technology in education.
Foley, M. (2003). The Global Development Learning Network: A World Bank initiative in distance learning for development. In
M. G. Moore & W. G. Anderson (Eds.), Handbook of distance education.Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum